पोस्ट विवरण
शिमला मिर्च
Krishi Gyan
28 June

Cultivation of Capsicum

In India, capsicum is cultivated in Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, Himachal Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, and Jharkhand. In Himachal Pradesh, it is grown during the summer season, and in Bihar and Jharkhand, it is cultivated during the Rabi season. Capsicum can be grown year-round in polyhouses. For higher yields, sowing should be done in September-October. Capsicum, rich in vitamins A and C, can be cultivated at a low cost. With improved varieties, one can obtain a yield of 30-50 quintals per acre, leading to good profits within 2-4 months.

How to Cultivate Capsicum?

Climate: The best climate for capsicum cultivation is a humid one, with an optimal temperature range of 21°C to 25°C for plant growth. If it gets too cold, the plants produce fewer flowers, and the fruits become small and misshapen. Conversely, in higher temperatures, the flowers start to fall off, adversely affecting the yield.

Soil: Clayey loam soil is considered the most suitable for its cultivation, although more fertilizer is required when farming in sandy loam soil. The pH level of the soil should ideally be between 6 and 7.

Sowing Time

  • For harvesting in September-October: Sow the seeds in the nursery in June-July and transplant the seedlings in the main field in July-August.
  • For harvesting in November-December: Sow the seeds in the nursery from August to September and transplant the seedlings in the main field in September-October.
  • For harvesting in February-March: Sow the seeds in the nursery in November-December and transplant the seedlings in the main field in December-January.

Varieties: Suvarna, California Wonder, Royal Wonder, Yellow Wonder, Green Gold, Arka Basant, Arka Gaurav, Arka Mohini, Indra, Bomby, Lario, and Orobelle; Clause International Seeds Asha, UPL Advanta 102 (Capsicum), Seminis 1865, Heera, etc., are popular varieties.

Seed Rate: For sowing capsicum, 160 to 200 gm of seeds are required for 1 acre.

Sowing Method

  • Seed Treatment: It is essential to treat the seeds before sowing to protect the plants from various harmful diseases and pests. For this, treat 1 kg of seeds with 2.5 grams of Thiram or 2.5 grams of Bavistin.
  • Row Sowing: Always sow the seeds in rows, keeping a distance of 10 cm between the rows.
  • Sowing Depth: Sow the seeds at a depth of 1 to 2 cm.
  • Covering Seeds: After sowing, cover the seeds with cow dung manure and soil. Immediately after this, lightly irrigate to facilitate germination.
  • Transplant Treatment: Before transplanting the seedlings to the main field, treat them with Copper Oxychloride (Blue Copper) by mixing 3 grams of the chemical per liter of water.

Preparing the Seed Bed

  • Prepare seed beds with dimensions of 300 x 60 x 15 cm for planting new seedlings.
  • Sow the seeds on the prepared seed beds.
  • After sowing, cover the seeds with a thin layer of soil.
  • Provide light irrigation for germination.


  • Perform the first irrigation immediately after transplanting the seedlings.
  • Irrigate at intervals of every 7 to 10 days.
  • During dry weather, irrigate at intervals of every 3 to 4 days.
  • Ensure there is no moisture deficiency during the flowering and fruiting stages.

Field Preparation

  • Prepare the field by plowing it 4-5 times.
  • After plowing, leave the soil exposed to sunlight for a few days.


  • Transplant the seedlings when they have 4-5 leaves.
  • For planting capsicum in one acre of land, 16,000 to 20,000 seedlings are required.
  • It is generally done during the rainy season.
  • Use 30-35 day old seedlings for planting.
  • Maintain a distance of 50 cm between two rows and 50 cm between plants.

Fertilizer and Manure Application

  • Apply 15-20 cartloads of cow dung manure in the field.
  • In the nursery, 15 days after sowing, spray a solution of 12:61:0 fertilizer at the rate of 3 gm per liter of water.
  • 22 days after sowing, spray a solution of 19:19:19 fertilizer at the rate of 3 gm per liter of water.
  • Level the soil by using "paleva".
  • During the final plowing, apply an appropriate amount of N.P.K. fertilizer.
  • For 1 acre of field, apply 70 kg of urea, 44 kg of D.A.P, 34 kg of M.O.P, and 4 tons of FYM manure.
  • If the soil is deficient in sulphur, mix 20 kg of sulphur per acre.
  • Level the field using a harrow/plank.

Weed Control

  • Perform weeding and hoeing 3 to 4 times during the crop cycle.
  • Conduct the first weeding and hoeing 25 days after transplanting.
  • Conduct the second weeding and hoeing 45 days after transplanting.
  • Add soil 30 days after transplanting the plants, so that there will be no problem of plants falling.

Diseases and Pests: Capsicum, commonly known as bell pepper, is susceptible to various pests and diseases. Capsicum plants are often affected by aphids, whiteflies, thrips, fruit borer, and tobacco caterpillars. Additionally, diseases such as white powdery mildew, anthracnose, fusarium wilt, fruit rot, and blight occur in capsicum plants.

Harvesting: Harvest the fruits 60 to 70 days after planting the plants. While picking the fruits, use a 2-3 cm long stem so that the Capsicum does not get bruised or damaged.

Do you cultivate Capsicum (Shimla Mirch)? Share your answers and experiences with us in the comments. This article provides complete information on fertilizers and nutrients, along with other interesting and important facts. Follow the 'Krishi Gyan' channel now for more such content and insights. Please like and share the post with all your farmer friends.

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

Q: When is capsicum (Shimla mirch) planted?

A: Capsicum is generally sown during the months of June and July in India. However, the exact timing of planting can vary based on specific localities and climate conditions. It is crucial to ensure that the soil temperature is sufficiently warm for seed germination and there is no risk of frost. Capsicum seeds can be sown directly in the field or in seed trays, and they require well-drained soil and regular watering for optimal growth.

Q: Which is the best variety of capsicum?

A: Capsicum varieties differ according to different regions. Some major varieties include Indra, Bomby (Red), Orobelle (Yellow capsicum), Solan Hybrid 2, and Pusa Deepshikha. Additionally, other popular varieties of capsicum in India include Green Gold, Solan Hybrid 1, Yellow Wonder, California Wonder, Arka Gaurav, Arka Mohini, Hari Rani, and King of the North. Each of these varieties is considered excellent based on their respective regions and conditions.

फसल चिकित्सक से मुफ़्त सलाह पाएँ

फसल चिकित्सक से मुफ़्त सलाह पाएँ