पोस्ट विवरण
19 Mar

Cultivation of Sunflower

Sunflowers are not just visually appealing but also beneficial in many ways. The oil obtained from sunflower seeds is used for consumption due to its medicinal properties. Additionally, it is also used in the preparation of various beauty products. Farmers from Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, Odisha, Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu, and Bihar cultivate sunflowers on a large scale for good profits in a shorter period. Although sunflower cultivation is successful in all seasons, it is less prone to diseases and pests when cultivated between February and March. For detailed information on sunflower cultivation, carefully read this post.

Cultivation Practices for Sunflower

Suitable Sowing Time for Sunflowers

  • Sunflower cultivation is carried out in all seasons including Rabi, Kharif, and Zaid.
  • For cultivation in the Zaid season, it is advisable to sow sunflowers from January to the 1st week of February.
  • For cultivation in the Kharif season, the sowing should be done from February to March.
  • To cultivate sunflowers in the Rabi season, sow them from October to November.

Appropriate Soil and Climate Conditions for Cultivation

  • Dry climate is necessary during crop ripening.
  • Cultivation can be done in almost all types of soil.
  • To obtain a good yield, cultivation should be done in heavy soil and loamy soil.
  • Avoid cultivation in acidic and alkaline soil.
  • The soil should have good water retention capacity.
  • Waterlogging is detrimental to seed germination and plant growth, so ensure proper drainage in the field.

Seed Quantity

  • For cultivating hybrid varieties per acre of land, 4.8 to 6 kg of seeds are required.
  • On the other hand, for cultivating non-hybrid varieties per acre of land, 2 to 2.4 kg of seeds are required.

Seed Treatment Method

  • Before sowing, soak the seeds in water for 5 to 6 hours. This facilitates germination.
  • Before sowing, treat each kg of seeds with 2 gm of Thiram.
  • Before sowing, soak the seeds in water for 12 hours.
  • Afterward, dry the seeds in a shaded area for 3 to 4 hours before sowing.

Seed Spacing

  • For the cultivation of hybrid varieties, there should be a spacing of 60 cm between rows.
  • For the cultivation of improved varieties, maintain a spacing of 45 cm between rows.
  • The distance between plants should be 30 cm.

Preparation of the Field

  • After plowing, if there is insufficient moisture in the field, deep plowing should be done with a plow that flips the soil.
  • After that, use a traditional plow or cultivator 2 to 3 times to thoroughly mix the soil and make it fine.
  • During the final plowing, mix 2.8 to 3.2 tons of well-decomposed cow dung manure per acre of land.
  • Additionally, in irrigated areas, apply 52 to 64 kg of Urea, 150 kg of Single Super Phosphate, and 26 kg of Muriate of Potash.
  • When using fertilizers, divide Urea into 3 equal parts and use the full quantity of Single Super Phosphate and Potash with 2 parts of Urea.
  • The remaining part of Urea should be broadcasted in standing crops 30 to 35 days after sowing.


  • First irrigation should be done 20-25 days after sowing. Light irrigation should be done to avoid waterlogging.
  • Subsequent irrigations should be done at intervals of 10-15 days as per the requirement.
  • During flowering, very light irrigation should be done to prevent the plants from falling.
  • Use drip irrigation method for irrigation in the field. This saves water and also reduces the cost of irrigation.

Adding Soil around Plants

  • Sunflower flowers are large in size. Due to its weight, there is a risk of plants falling. In such cases, to prevent plants from falling, add soil around the plants up to a height of about 10 to 15 cm from the ground surface.

Weed Management

  • To obtain a better yield, it is necessary to control weeds.
  • If weeds are abundant in the field, sunflower plants do not get a proper amount of nutrients. In such a situation, yield and quality are adversely affected.
  • Weeding is a better option to control weeds. The cost of weeding is also less and the soil of the field also becomes friable.

Disease and Pest Management

  • Sunflower crops are often affected by pests such as termites, green stink bugs, and pod borers. When incidences of infestation appear, it is important to use appropriate pesticides to protect the crops from diseases and pests.


  • Harvest the crop after the shedding of flowers or when the back part of the flower turns yellow.
  • All flowers do not shed at once or the back part of all flowers does not turn yellow at the same time. Therefore, continue harvesting at intervals of a few days.
  • After harvesting, dry the flowers well in the shade. Then, remove the seeds by threshing with a stick or using a sunflower thresher.


  • After extracting the seeds, ensure they are properly dried. Store the seeds when they contain moisture levels between 8-10%.
  • Extract oil from the seeds within 3 months. Delay in oil extraction can result in bitterness in the oil.

In sunflower cultivation, which fertilizers do you use? Share your answers with us through comments. For more information like this, follow the 'Horticulture' channel now. Also, don't forget to like and share this post.

Frequently Asked Questions(FAQs)

Q: In which months is sunflower sowing done?

A: Sunflower cultivation can be done three times a year. For better yields, sowing should be done in the months of February to March.

Q: Which state leads in the cultivation of sunflowers?

A: Karnataka holds the top position in sunflower production in India.

Q: How long does it take for sunflowers to mature?

A: The time for maturing of sunflowers depends on their variety. Typically, after planting, sunflowers take about 90 days to mature.

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