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Krishi Gyan
6 May

Jute Cultivation: Sowing Time, Varieties & Method

Jute is one of the main cash crops of Eastern India. Its cultivation is primarily carried out in the eastern states of West Bengal, Bihar, Assam, and Odisha, and India is the world's largest jute-producing country, accounting for approximately 60% of the global production. It is a long, soft, shiny plant fiber that can be spun into coarse, strong threads. Jute is exported as both raw material and raw fiber. It is used to make items such as bags, canvas, twine, blankets, carpets, rugs, brushes, ropes, charcoal, etc.

How to Cultivate Jute?

Soil: Jute grows well in flat land with good drainage. Apart from this, loamy and clayey loam soil is most suitable for its cultivation.

Sowing Time: Jute is a warm-season crop and is usually sown during the monsoon season in India. The ideal time for jute sowing is between June and July when the rains begin. In India, jute is sown on low-lying soil in February and on elevated soil from March to July.

Seed Quantity: Jute is sown in rows using a seed drill. For capsularis varieties, 1.5 to 2 kg of seeds per acre are required; for olitorius varieties, 1 to 2 kg of seeds per acre are necessary. If you sow by broadcasting, it takes 2 to 3 kg of seeds per acre.

Seed Treatment: Treat jute seeds with fungicides before planting.

Sowing Method: Jute seeds are sown in rows with a distance of 20-25 cm between rows. Seeds should be sown at a depth of 2-3 cm. There are two methods of sowing jute seeds:

  • Broadcasting: In this method, jute seeds are evenly spread on prepared soil. This method is suitable for small-scale farming.
  • Line Sowing: In this method, jute seeds are sown in rows with a distance of 20-25 cm between rows. This method is suitable for large-scale farming.

Field Preparation: Plow the field once with a soil-turning plow. After 2-3 days, plow the field again with a traditional plow or a cultivator and then ensure the soil is friable. The jute seeds are very small, so it is necessary for the soil to be fine and friable to ensure good seed germination.

Hybrid Varieties of Jute

  • Maharaja: This is a fiber of golden color with high quality. The height of its plants is 5 to 5.5 m. Flowering in this variety is minimal in adverse conditions.
  • Capsularis: It is also known as white jute. Its leaves are bitter in taste. It is sown from February to March.
  • JRC-321: This is a fast-maturing variety and has been found to be optimal for early rainfall and low-lying land. It can be sown in February-March and harvested in July.
  • JRC-212: Suitable for places where sowing is done late in mid and high lands. Sowing should be done from March to April and should be completed by the end of July.
  • UPC-94 (Reshma): Suitable for low-lying areas, and sowing is done from the 3rd week of February to mid-March.
  • JRC-698: Suitable for low-lying areas, and sowing can be done at the end of March.
  • Ankit (NDC): Sowing of this variety is done from February 15 to March 15.
  • NDC-9102: This variety has all the qualities of 878 and additionally, it has good yield potential due to its ability to tolerate more drought stress.
  • JRO-632: It is suitable for late sowing and high lands, and sowing can be done from April to the last week of May.
  • JRO-878: This variety is suitable for all types of soils and is sown from mid-March to May.
  • JRO-524 (Navin): The sowing of this variety is done from the third week of March to April.
  • JRO-66: This variety can yield good production by sowing in May to June and harvesting within 100 days.

Would you like to do jute farming? Share your answers and queries with us by commenting. Follow the 'Krishi Gyan' channel now for more interesting and important information like this. And if you liked the post, don't forget to like it and share it with your fellow farmers.

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

Q: How does the jute plant grow?

A: Jute grows in conditions similar to rice, and it is most suitable for warm regions where there is an annual monsoon season. This crop requires approximately 80% of the ambient humidity for successful growth and harvest.

Q: Where is jute cultivation done?

A: Jute cultivation is done in approximately 83 districts across seven states - West Bengal, Assam, Odisha, Bihar, Uttar Pradesh, Tripura, and Meghalaya.

Q: How many types of jute are there?

A: Jute is of various types. There are two main types: white jute and dark jute, also known as Tossa jute. Jute plants require specific growing conditions and soil, necessitating cultivation in warm, humid climates with annual monsoon seasons.

Q: What type of soil is used for jute?

A: Jute can be grown in all types of soil, from sandy loam to clayey soil, but loamy alluvial soil is most suitable. Laterite and gravel soils are not suitable for this crop. New grey alluvial soil with good depth, receiving silt from annual floods, is the best for jute cultivation.

Q: In which season is jute cultivated?

A: Jute is a rainy-season crop, sown from March to May depending on rainfall and soil type. Harvesting is done from June to September, depending on whether sowing is early or delayed. Jute requires a warm and humid climate with temperatures between 24°C and 37°C.

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