पोस्ट विवरण
Krishi Gyan
24 May

Cultivation of Sesame

Sesame cultivation is an important agricultural activity in India, contributing approximately 30% of the global sesame production. Sesame is grown in both Kharif and Rabi seasons in India. The major sesame-producing states in India are Gujarat, Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, and Telangana. Sesame is used for oil extraction, food, and fodder. Sesame oil is widely used in Indian cuisine and is also utilized in the production of soaps, cosmetics, and pharmaceuticals.

How to Cultivate Sesame Efficiently?

  • Climate: For optimal growth of sesame, a temperature range of 25 to 35°C is suitable. Temperatures above 40°C and below 15°C can lead to a decrease in sesame crop yield and oil production.
  • Soil: Light sandy and loamy soils are ideal for sesame cultivation. The soil pH should be between 5.5 and 7.5. Soil with good drainage is appropriate for growing sesame.
  • Sowing Time: Sesame can be cultivated in both the Kharif and Rabi seasons. For the Kharif season, the suitable sowing period is from June to the end of July. In the Rabi season, sowing is done from October to November.
  • Seed Quantity: The recommended seed rate for sesame cultivation is typically around 3-4 kg per acre. If the line sowing method is used, approximately 1.5-2.5 kg of seed per acre is sufficient.
  • Seed Treatment: Seeds should be treated at a rate of 1 gm of carbendazim per kg of seed before sowing.
  • Field Preparation: The field should be well-prepared before sowing sesame seeds. This involves deep plowing the field 2 to 3 times using a cultivator or plow, followed by leveling the soil. When sowing sesame seeds, maintain a row spacing of 30-45 cm and a plant spacing of 15 cm. It is essential to ensure that the field has adequate moisture at the time of sowing.
  • Varieties: There are several improved varieties of sesame that have been developed through research programs in India. Some of these varieties include Sekhar, RT 351, Pragati, TKG 22, TKG 19, RT 48, VRI 1, and TMV 3.
  • Fertilizer and Nutrient Management: The use of fertilizers and nutrients in sesame cultivation should be based on soil testing. Before sowing or during field preparation, apply 2 to 5 tons of organic manure or vermicompost per acre. Additionally, at the time of sowing, you can use 1 ton of cow dung manure along with 2 kg per acre of Azotobacter and phosphate solubilizing bacteria (PSB). If soil tests indicate nutrient deficiencies, apply the necessary micronutrients accordingly.
  • Irrigation: There is no need to water sesame after sowing, but if there is no rain for a long period or if the field lacks moisture, it is necessary to water once during the fruit formation stage.
  • Weed Management: Weeding should be done 15 to 20 days after sowing. To prevent weeds from growing, apply efficient herbicides.
  • Diseases and Pests: Timely treatment is essential to prevent diseases and pests in sesame. Common diseases in sesame cultivation include bacterial blight, stem rot, and root rot. Common pests include aphids, jassids, whiteflies, leafhoppers, and thrips, which can cause significant damage to the crop by feeding on the leaves, stems, and seeds.
  • Harvesting: Harvesting can be done when the pods of the sesame plants turn yellow and the leaves start to fall. After harvesting, bundle the crops and keep them in the field or barn. Then dry them for 8 to 10 days, and beat them with a wooden stick to thresh.
  • Yield: The yield of sesame can vary based on soil type, climate, irrigation, and cultivation methods. In one acre of sesame fields, the production is approximately 400 to 500 kg per acre. With good agricultural practices and proper management, the yield can be increased to 600 to 700 kg per acre.

Have you ever cultivated sesame? If yes, how was your experience? Share your thoughts and answers with us in the comments. For more such interesting and important information on farming and agriculture, follow the 'Krishi Gyan' channel now. If you liked this post, like it and share it with fellow farmers.

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

Q: What is the right time to sow sesame seeds?

A: In India, sesame seeds are usually sown during the monsoon season (June-July) and harvested in October-November.

Q: How much yield of sesame is obtained from one acre of land?

A: The yield of sesame seeds per acre can vary based on factors such as soil type, climate, irrigation, and cultivation methods. However, on average, approximately 400 to 500 kg per acre of sesame can be obtained in India. With good agricultural practices and proper management, the yield can be increased to 600 to 700 kg per acre. It is important to note that these are only estimated figures and actual yields may vary depending on the specific conditions of the field.

Q: What are the major diseases that occur in sesame crops?

A: The major diseases in sesame crops include root rot, stem rot or charcoal rot, leaf blight, wilting, powdery mildew, bacterial leaf spot, etc.

Q: Which pests affect sesame crops?

A: Sesame crops in India are highly susceptible to various pests and diseases. Some common pests found in sesame include aphids, jassids, whiteflies, leafhoppers, and thrips. These pests can cause significant damage to the crop by feeding on leaves, stems, and seeds. Farmers in India use various methods to control these pests, including the use of pesticides, crop rotation, and intercropping with other crops. Adopting appropriate pest management practices is crucial to ensuring healthy and productive sesame crops.

फसल चिकित्सक से मुफ़्त सलाह पाएँ

फसल चिकित्सक से मुफ़्त सलाह पाएँ